Suicide and suicidal behaviour

Suicide and suicidal behaviour
Suicide is now a worldwide emerging health issue. Suicide is the intentional taking of one’s own life. 200,000 people in USA attempt suicide every year out of which 26,000 people lose their lives. While actual no. of suicides may be higher since official records often list suicide as another form of death. In Pakistan 15 – 35 people commit suicide every day. Means one person every hour commit suicide. According to the WHO survey in 2012, the suicide rate was 7.5 per 100,000 people In Pakistan. Which means 13,000 people commit suicide every year. This no. is half of the American suicide deaths. student suicides in Pakistan is also a wake-up call for parents and educational administrations.
Types of suicidal behaviour
There are 3 types of suicidal behaviour.

  1. Suicide threat
  2. Suicide attempt
  3. Suicide gesture
  4. Dead by suicide

Suicide threat
Suicide threat is verbal admiration of one’s own life useless. It is also before actual suicide attempt. It include verbal admiration such as “I just take it anymore.” This indicates that person is not sure about his attention to attempt suicide but he is thinking about it.
Suicide attempt
Suicide attempt are series of some life threatening actions which could lead a person’s life towards death if not Interrupted.
Suicide gesture
Suicide gesture is called as a cry for help. Person thinks about a way in which he may be rescued from his attempt. Most of time it includes calling someone.
Common ways to attempt suicide

  • Superficial cutting of wrist
  • drug overdose
  • Hanging
  • Ingestion of insecticides
  • Firearms
  • Behaviour signs
    The person’s behaviour and actions suddenly change. For example, a person who didn’t like to play cricket start playing cricket. Or a thrifty person start spending more money than he earns. In simple words they begin to show reaction formation. I. Which they act totally different to their thinking. At that point person select suicide as a only solution to his problems. Other changes includes:
  • Loss of interest in recreation
  • Loss of interest in people
  • The individual may also avoid family, friends
  • Decreased sexual drives
  • Person may not make statements only his behaviour changes
  • Planning his own funeral
  • Suddenly resigning from clubs and groups to which he belongs
  • Crying for no apparent reason
  • Composing suicide note
  • A person who hate guns suddenly buy one
  • Appear quit happy in some cases
  • Non drinker Begins drinking to excess
  • Sudden and unexplained recovery from a severe depression
  • Depressed mood
  • Facial expressions may be blank,old or sad
  • Feels low or sad
  • Trembling
  • Causes of suicidal behaviour
  • Depression
  • Decreased ability to think
  • Diminished physical ability
  • Guilt
  • Self condemnation
  • Hopelessness
  • Disorders of eating
  • Sleeping disorders
  • Change in work habit
  • Inconsistent work pace
  • Compulsive working
  • Lack of interest in work
  • Separation/divorce
  • Difficulties with spouse
  • Loss of Self control
  • Financial problems
  • Debts
  • Living within tough budget
  • Interpersonal problems
  • Lover’s row
  • Difficulties in accepting authority
  • Homesickness
  • Loss of supporting friends/family ties
  • Difficulties with people at work
  • Management of suicide
  • Communicate with patient and convey message that you are with him
  • Assure the person that helps is available
  • Don’t leave alone patient at any time
  • Open a dialogue about uncomfortable aspects of life
  • Decrease a fear of seeking help in patient
  • Collaboration between government,non government organizations, public and mental health professionals in need of time to take up this challenge
  • Enhance self esteem in patient
  • Taking official statistical record of suicides
  • Crisis intervention centres and suicide prevention hotline Should be established.
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