Chicken Feed: Value Addition of Waste Food – An Economic Boost

Submitted by

Bakhtawar Shafique

B.Sc. (Hons). Food Science and Technology

4th Semester

University Of Sargodha

 


Contents



  1. Waste food
  2. Make junk food nutritious
  3. Fruits and vegetables losses
  4. Graph of fruits and vegetables lose
  5. Management of fruit waste
  6. Conversion of Rotten fruits and vegetables into chicken feed
  7. Benefits of rearing of black soldier fly (BSF)
  8. Company: Entomics Biosystems
  9. Nutritional value of fats and proteins in insects conversion biomass
  10. Conclusion
  11. Bibliography

 



Waste Food:

Waste food is usually considered to be uneaten substances that are discarded. It includes rotten fruits, vegetables and many other numerous food sources. Only fruits and vegetables can take into account due to their nutritional value. It is necessary to utilize the waste food by manageable practices in order to eliminate various health problems. Expenditures must be spent on transporting valued food material rather than waste food. Modern world is dealing with waste food by converting it into the beneficial food material.   (wikipedia waste food.2016)

food waste1
Food and vegetables in dumpster, discarded uneaten (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

 

Make Junk Food Nutritious:

Broiler chicken is the foremost ingredient in junk food. No doubt this is alarming, across most of the planet, meat animals are raised with the assistance of daily doses of antibiotics. By 2050, antibiotics resistance will cause a staggering death of 10 million individuals a year. As we know that antibiotic resistance is a severe epidemic for most of the people unless they become infected unfortunately.

Antibiotics cause the conditions that produce bland chicken mostly. They allow chicken to become tedious or dreary. They also turn an active, skittish and backyard bird into a fast-growing, slow moving, docile block of protein.

Farmers consider the use of drugs such as antibiotics and vaccines more necessary for the chicken. They need to flourish the chicken more rapidly and effectively. In return, these broiler chickens have become the part of disease transmitting bridge to humans. The unhealthy chicken consumption due to the prevalence of junk food in market, adults are more likely to have epidemics.

Children and adults are becoming obese. Aged people usually face cardiac problems. Many hormonal problems in girls occur. In order to prevent these epidemics negligible use of antibiotics is required in chicken. The use of drugs can be eradicated by providing insect larvae biomass to livestock. It’s all about the health of humans, not basically a simple nutrition. Modern world is tackling with the diseases by adding a bit of biotechnology and focusing on food science technology applying to the waste food.

Fruits and Vegetables Losses:

Approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of the food are produced and harvested for the human consumption gets wasted. However, fruits and vegetables have large amount of food wastage than any other food. Quantitative fruits and vegetables losses per year are 40-50% globally. Almost half of the fruits and vegetables produced become wasted. As they are perishable food material, so their preservation is required. Various procedures are required to utilize the fruits and vegetables properly. Vast range of their losses occurred during harvesting, transportation and also due to the reduction of facilities, preservation methods and applications to harvest fruits and vegetables safely.

(Food and agriculture organization of united states.2017)

food waste2.png

 

45%

Fruits and vegetables losses occur!

 

 

 

 

Graph: Fruits and Vegetables Losses in Different Regions

Following is the record of per capita losses of fruits and vegetables in different regions and countries by:

“Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations”.

This graph is representing the fruits and vegetables loss:

food waste3
Source: FAO 2012

 

Management of Waste Food:

Waste food problems can be solved by organizing and arranging an effective management strategy. In past and also in present methods like composting, recycling and waste reduction are prevailing. But it must also be remembered that there is a need to adopt a strategy that should be beneficial to fulfill the nutritional requirement of masses. For this purpose, conversion of waste food especially fruits and vegetable into animal feed is a top most priority by numerous modern industries and companies now a days.

Objectives

Followings are the main objective to covert the waste food into animal feed.

  1. To get rid of waste food
  2. To eliminate the green house gasses are produced from waste food
  3. Eradication of various ailments caused by eating diseased chicken in junk foods
  4. Utilization of waste food for the production of nutritious chicken

 

Conversion of rotten fruits and vegetables into Chicken Feed:

Exclusive practice like “Insects biomass conversion” is now prevailing these days. The decayed and rotten fruits and vegetables are fed directly to insects. Insects in return convert the low value biomass into high value insect mass, abundant in proteins, fats and chitin.

These can in return be used as substantial inputs for a variety of sectors. Most notably high quality animal feeds are demanded by chicken feed sectors, aquaculture sectors and premium pet food market.

(entomics, 2016)

Benefits of rearing Black Soldier Fly

  • To build the strong immune system of animals
  • To make the livestock more resistant to disease challenges
  • To mitigate the use of drugs such as antibiotics and vaccines
  • To multiply the quantity of useful bacteria in the stomach of species
  • To decrease the antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  • To preserve the healthy bacterial community

Company: Entomics Biosystems

Entomics Biosystems is a biotechnology company in Cambridge England. It is basically a startup that has been supported by the Cambridge judge Entrepreneurship Centre’s Accelerate Cambridge Programme.

Entomics transforms waste food into substantial feed for chicken and farmed salmon by using an insect called the Black soldier fly (BSF) as a conversion catalyst. Entomics is developing and enabling technology solution for the growing insects for food and feed sector.

food waste4.jpg

Fly larvae (Maggots) © Tom pilston

Source: FINANCIAL TIMES

 

Best insect species

Multiple species of insects have been shown as viable and are rearing for conversion of biomass. However, the favorite ones are

  • Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)
  • Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)

 

Biomass Logistics hack

1,000-10,000 folds of changing can be observed in biomass ranges between 14-15 days.

Sustainable Credentials

Insect farming is considered to be a highly sustainable practice. Reduced land use, negligible water use and elimination of green house gasses are key examples.

Nutritionally rich

Dried insects contain above 40% crude protein. Many insect larvae are roughly rich in fat and made up of chitin.

The Co-founder and CEO of Entomics Company Limited

Matt Mclaren agrees:

“We really believe that our idea will have far reaching implications for getting the most out of our waste food”

Techniques involve

Two main processes are involved in insect biomass conversion. The holistic processing methodology for insect biomass is METAMORPHOSIS. Tonnes of food waste are gathered from local supermarkets, restaurants, hotels, food processing industries and are also collected from outside the offices dumpsters.

The insects are fed directly to the food waste under controlled conditions and endure the process of fermentation. Technologists check the nutritional profiles and growth rate status. These insects metabolize the food waste into nutritionally rich fats and proteins. These fats and proteins have become a major part of natural diet of chicken to mitigate the use of drugs like antibiotics and vaccines.

(entomics biosystems, 2016)

food waste5

Conclusion

Food technologists always struggle to provide beneficial food to human by applying techniques and food science technology. It is an emerging challenge to sort out many problems like waste food which we have to endure. Enhancement in lifestyle is causing a major threat to human health especially in children and adults.

Chicken is a major ingredient in Junk food. Doses of antibiotics are injected in chickens that are causing various diseases. By utilizing food waste, the use of antibiotics in chickens could be mitigated. Fruits and vegetables waste is transforming into chicken feed by Entomics Biosystems are applying various techniques of biotechnology and food science through black soldier fly. Consumption of nutritional diet by chicken will definitely produce healthy chicken as well as threat of causing diseases to masses by eating junk food could be reduced. Various diseases can be eradicated and reduced by this application.

In a nut shell, food technologists are trying their best to achieve excellence in the unique method and to consume the waste food in the nutritious form. Certainly, nothing should be wasted in this world.



Bibliography

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  2. En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Waste food. [online] Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/waste-food#/media/File:Trashed_vegetables_in_Luxembourg.jpeg  [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2019). Key facts on food loss and waste you should know!. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/save-food/resources/keyfindings/en/  [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
  4. Packaging South Asia. (2019). New SAVE FOOD Study on Food Loss in India | Packaging South Asia. [online] Available at: https://packagingsouthasia.com/packaging-production/new-save-food-study-on-food-loss-in-india/  [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
  5. Entomics. (2019). Entomics. [online] Available at: http://www.entomics.com/  [Accessed 24 Jan. 2019].
  6. Cambridge Network. (2019). Entomics Biosystems Limited. [online] Available at: https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/directories/companies/3821/ [Accessed 24 Jan. 2019].
  7. Google.com. (2019). maggots in entomics – Google Search. [online] Available at: https://www.google.com/search?biw=942&bih=449&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=1XdMXIisC6OE1fAPh8WCsAQ&q=maggots+in+entomics&oq=maggots+in+entomics&gs_l=img.3…9736.19742..20087…0.0..0.940.4968.2-8j5-1j3……1….1..gws-wiz-img…….0j0i5i30j0i8i30j0i24.lsxTyuTb0rw#imgrc=BX0LLnfxk7frFM:[Accessed 26 Jan. 2019].
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  9. Agri-Tech East. (2019). Entomics are lord of the flies at AgriGate. [online] Available at: https://www.agritech-east.co.uk/entomics-are-lord-of-the-flies-at-agrigate/  [Accessed 26 Jan. 2019].
  10. 123RF. (2019). cartoon rotten banana. [online] Available at: https://www.123rf.com/photo_95544663_stock-vector-cartoon-rotten-banana.html  [Accessed 27 Jan. 2019].
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