Beetroot is a tap root portion of beet plant. It was first Cultivated by Romans. Beetroot or table beet is from the same family as sugar beet but vary in nutritional point of view as they are used for extracting sugar for various purpose now a days .It is also very important due to its medicinal properties.


  • The beetroot family, Chenopodioideae, is a sub family of flowering plant .
  • This specie includes herbaceous plant , shrubs and succulent.
  • The flowers having no petals.
  • The food specie includes chenopodium (Quinoa, Fat hen etc ) and he crop derived from Beta vulgaris are mostly biennial namely sugarbeet , chard etc. while other are annual.

The beetroot family contain variety of edible plants such as:

  • Vulgaris ( garden beet, sugar beet etc)
  • Album (Lambs quarter)
  • Quinua _Quinua
  • Oleraea_spanich


There are mostly three types of beet (beta vugaris spp, vulgaris) of which red is consumed as vegetable. In this types it can be determined by three basic types such as on the basis of size and shape

  • Spherical
  • Elongate
  • Intermediate

Its variety includes :

Formanova : cylindrical beet.
Chioggia: Having White and red striped flesh.
Golden : It id like carrot coloured.

Plant compounds:

The main plant compounds includes :


It is a group of betaxanthins It is yellow or orange pigment found in yellow beets. Stability of this compound can be effected by the water activity mostly.

Inorganic Nitrate:

It includes nitrate , nitritie and nitric oxide .Found mostly in green leafy vegetables and beetroot etc . it can also converted into nitric oxide that has many important functions in the body.Nitric oxide sends signal to muscle cells for relaxation purpose.


Betanin is a natural antioxidant and having anti inflammatory properties . It is derived from betanidin . Found in red beetroots ,color pigment ,and have various benefits .

Nutrition value:

  • Beetroot contain 87% water in it naturally that is very beneficial
  • Carbohydrate is 8%.
  • Fiber 2-3%.
  • Beetroot are of good source of fibre, folic acid , potassium etc. The greens of beetroot is very beneficial rich in calcium , iron and vitamin enrich .Fibre present in beetroot increase the no of white blood cells in the body .
  • Red beetroot is antioxidanat rich vegetable and a good source of glutamine that help in intestinal problem and maintain health and it is also nitrate rich food.
  • Beetroot juice is very beneficial for heart and sugar patients that the juice decrease the blood pressure .
  • One cup of boiled beetroot contain 60 calories
  • The amount of carbohydrate present in beetroot are mainly glucose and fructose .They are rich source of fiber, folate .Beetroot contain carbs called FODMAPs which can cause digestion problem sometimes.

Health benefits of Beetroot:

Lowers blood pressure:

As Beetroot contain a large amount of inorganic nitrates that plays an important role in lowering blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular disease . The lowering of blood pressure is due to increased amount of nitric oxide.

Good for Heart:

As nitric oxide may lowers blood pressure and also lower the risk of heart diseases like that beetroot juice may improve the oxygen delivery easy to the working skeletal muscles which may improve movement of muscles and arms.

Prevent Cancer:

Due to prescence of betanin in beetroot the risk of prostate and breast cancer is decreasing day by day .It also prevent leukemia when beetroot juice is taken with carrot that is very beneficial for humans.

Good for Liver:

Beetroot having Betaine helps to eliminate toxins from liver. The fiber also eliminate toxins from the liver .Beetroot are also helpful for thining of bile through which allow to flow easily through the tract.

Protect Eye Health:

Antioxidnt in beets helps to control macular degeneration and cataract . Having a large amount of phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid , flavenoids, carotenoids etc also hepfull for eye health.


Beetroot having naturaly colour pigment betanin that is very good source of for preventing various diseases such as cancer, blood pressure , cardiovascular diseases etc .Beetroot also contain a large amount of phytochemicals such as flavenoids , ascorbic acid etc that is very beneficial for health .

Author: Nabia Noor

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